India boasts a long and colorful history as one of the cradles of civilization, and today is the only country besides China to have a population over one billion. Despite the country’s long list of contributions to modern society, hygiene is an overwhelming problem in India. According to the World Bank, approximately 569 million Indians still practice open defecation and 77 million Indians lack access to safe water. Historically, many organizations and government initiatives have aimed to increase sanitation in India, but have fallen short of providing a sustainable solution tailored for India. Objectives According to World Bank estimates in 2015, India loses about 6.4% of its GDP, or approximately $53 billion USD, due to poor sanitation and hygiene practices. In India, traditional sanitation methods such as hand-washing, use of soap, and indoor plumbing have not yet reached the bulk of India’s population. Rather than imposing Western standards of cleanliness on a nation with its own unique cultural and economic circumstances, policymakers would do better to plant more citronella grass, which is native to India and can provide a cheap and quick alternative to good sanitation. Rather than having to find running water and soap to wash their hands, citizens in India could experience the same antimicrobial benefits by rubbing their hands vigorously on citronella grass. Methods To test the various inhibitive effects of citronella grass on harmful pathogens, Escherichia coli AG100, Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325, along with the yeast Candida albicans, were treated with a 1% citronella essential oil solution. Following 10 minutes of exposure to the essential oil solution, microbial activity was measured using O2 consumption rates as a % of control, along with K+ efflux as % of total cell K+. Measurements were compared against a control group, along with a group treated with 0.1% vinegar solution, a common household antimicrobial agent. Results Microbes treated with citronella essential oil showed significant increases in permeability of cytoplasmic membranes for the bacteria and the plasma membrane for the Candida yeast. Growth was significantly inhibited following the loss of chemiosmotic control in these organisms. Following the increased permeability and decreased respiration, it was mainly the loss of potassium ions which restricted microbial activity. Conclusion Citronella grass provides a viable organic alternative for good hygiene in places where running water is not yet readily available. Currently, one meter of 5cm PVC pipe used in the delivery of clean water costs 21 rupees, or $0.32 USD, while a citronella plant only costs 6 rupees, or $0.009 USD. When viewed in this light, citronella is a cost-friendly and viable alternative to building expensive plumbing infrastructure in underdeveloped areas across India. Citronella is indeed farmed in India on large plantations, but the plants are not widespread outside of these commercial farms. The lack of citronella outside of these farms presents an opportunity for India to address its sanitation problems and improve the quality of life for its citizens, by planting more citronella and informing citizens of the antimicrobial effects of the plant.
Selfie Petronela Joice Ulaen, was born on 01 Sptember 1973 in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Completing secondary education at the School of Pharmacy Manado 1992, Graduate Program in Manado State University science degree in Educational Administration and Teaching Certificate IV in 2001, and the Indonesian Christian University in Tomohon in the field of Pharmacy in 2009. Master's Degree Programme in the field of Public Health at the University Samratulangi Manado 2004
Papaya is known as a multipurpose plant for almost all the plants useful to humans, one of which is the papaya seeds are used as medicine roundworms, indigestion, diarrhea, skin diseases, male contraception, and raw materials into the wind. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and the effect of different concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5% ethanol extract of papaya seeds in inhibiting the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli. The study was a laboratory experiment with post-test design with control group. The research sample using black papaya seeds from the village Tompaso II District Tompaso Minahasa North Sulawesi Province. The ethanol extract of papaya seeds obtained from the maceration of 50 grams of dried papaya seeds powder using ethanol 70%, then made a test solution of each concentration of 1%, 3% and 5%. Test of inhibition is done by using a paper disc soaked at each concentration, and then placed on a nutrient agar which had been inoculated with the bacterium Escherichia coli, and then incubated in an incubator at a temperature of 37⁰C for 1 x 24 hours, 2 x 24 hours and 3 x 24 h and the diameter of clear zone formed was measured using a scale ruler mm. The data were analyzed descriptively continued with One Way Anova. The results showed difference in the effectiveness and influence of the concentration of 1%, 3% and 5% ethanol extract of papaya seeds in inhibiting the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli.